It is to be used by all officers, decision makers, and assessors that are involved in the whole decision process. , 2016 ). There are numerous decision making models around that attempt to map the investigative process. At the action step, decision makers are required to make and implement appropriate decisions. Were decisions proportionate, legitimate, necessary and ethical? It can also be used to improve future decisions and to help create techniques and methods for many situations. To examine the organizational processes that occur in police decision-making, one needs to uncover what, when, how, why and to what extent some decisions are made over others. This distinguishes the NDM from other decision-making models and recognises the need for all police decisions to be consistent with the principles and standards of behaviour set out in the Code. The police officer decision-making process is a complex one, subject to multiple informational inputs from a variety of sources. The Conflict Management model was used before the NDM and it proved highly effective but the Association of Chief Police Officers, or ACPO has replaced it with the more modern and updated National Decision Model. The mission of policing is to prevent crime and protect the public. Was a working strategy developed and was it appropriate? The review step requires decision makers to review and reflect on what happened once an incident is over. Were decisions reasonable in the circumstances facing the decision maker? Perform the most desirable action and, if necessary, begin the process again to get the best results possible. This stage involves considering the different ways to make a particular decision (or resolve a situation) with the least risk of harm. © College of Policing (2020). In a fast-moving incident, the police service recognises that it may not always be possible to segregate thinking or response according to each phase of the model. Develop a working strategy to guide subsequent stages by asking: This stage involves considering the powers, policies and legislation that could apply in this particular situation. For example, they will consider and share information, make a shared assessment, and take any respective powers and policies into consideration. In some circumstances the need to document decisions is prescribed by statute, required by organisational strategies, policies or local practices, or left to the decision maker’s discretion. How were the principles and standards of professional behaviour demonstrated during the situation? Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. CDM Steps 6 A. When Should The National Decision Model Be Used? What happened as a result of your decision? Lack of competence is as unethical as using our skills incorrectly. When discussing whether to use ML in police decision-making, it is important to compare ML, not to ideal decision-making, but to human decision-making (Bennett Moses and Chan, 2016, p. 7). Joint decisions must be made with reference to the over-arching or primary aim of any response to an emergency: to save lives and reduce harm. The Practically, this is useful for the nature of police work and especially so in crisis situations demanding immediate response. Is this action or decision likely to reflect positively on my professionalism and policing generally? their own knowledge, experience and skills, the impact of potential action on the situation and the public. Why Was The National Decision Model Introduced? C – the principles and standards of the Code of Ethics considered during decision making, I – information and intelligence known about the situation, A – how it was assessed and what the working strategy was, P – any powers, policies, legislation that applied. Not only should you work out what you do know but what you do not know. If the incident is over, review your decisions, using the NDM. What could go wrong (and what could go well)? The single difference between the JDM and the NDM is the wording in the central box. However, there are numerous studies, while not experimental, that can help explain police behaviors th… Accountability – You are answerable for your decisions, actions and omissions, Honesty – You are truthful and trustworthy, Integrity – You always do the right thing, Objectivity – You make choices on evidence and your best professional judgement, Openness – You are open and transparent in your actions and decisions, Respect – You treat everyone with respect, Selflessness – You act in the public interest. The National Decision Model (NDM) is suitable for all decisions and should be used by everyone in policing. Among segments with arrest rates higher than the sample base rate (with the exception of Segment 3 where the The ACPO felt that, while the Conflict Management Model was largely effective, it was only used in times of conflict. Could I explain my action or decision in public? In such cases, the main priority of decision makers is to keep in mind their overarching mission to act with integrity to protect and serve the public. The National Decision Model is the primary decision- making model for police in England and Wales. Intuitive decision-making refers to the process of deciding with a reliance on the use of feelings, hunches, and correlates with a spontaneous approach to decision-making (r = .32.53; Scott & Bruce, 1995). There is a dearth of quasi-experimental and experimental designs into the factors that influence a police officer’s decision-making. This model is described on the JESIP site as ‘ how to bring together the available information, reconcile potentially differing priorities and then make effective decisions togethe r’. Police Decision-Making Model Components ii include recognition and metacognition components taught through a domain specific approach. In working towards the JESIP objectives, police personnel are expected to act with principles such as integrity, honesty, respect, fairness and selflessness – ie, all the principles and standards of professional behaviour outlined in the Code of Ethics. The National Decision Model is a police framework that is meant to make the decision making process easier and more uniform. CDM Core 5 III. gation decision-making model places the suspect’s expected utility evaluations that drive the immediate choice of making a denial or a confession within a larger context, as depicted in Figure 1 . Stage 3 – Knowing what the problem is, you will need to determine what powers you and the police have in order to combat the problem. The Joint Emergency Services Interoperability Programme (JESIP) has been established to improve the ways in which the three emergency services work together at major and complex incidents. If appropriate, evaluate the impact of the decision on outcomes. Individuals, supervisors and others use it to assess potential decisions or … Stage 2 – Determine the threat, its nature, and its extent so that you can assess the situation and make the right decisions. To examine the organizational processes that occur in police decision‐making, one needs to uncover what, when, how, why and to what extent some decisions are made over others. Does anyone else need to know what you have decided? to spontaneous incidents or planned operations. The Association of Chief Police Officers, ACPO, decided that the Conflict Management Model, though effective, needed updating and renaming so that it would be used for making a wider variety of decisions. Your decision making process will be developed and improved upon over time with experience and professionalism. Stage 1 – Gather information about the problem in hand. Which powers will be needed and will the required powers and policies need any additional or specialist manpower to be instigated and introduced? Managers and others can use it to review decisionsand actions, and promote learning. Ethical difficulties emerge when police officers, either as individuals or collectively, act in a way that is not defensible on legal and […] In reviewing and reflecting on decisions, questions that supervisors might ask themselves include: Even where the outcome was not as planned, if the decision was reasonable and proportionate in the circumstances, and made in accordance with the Code of Ethics, the decision maker deserves the support of their supervisor and that of the organisation. Did you recognise, question and challenge instances of poor decision making? It is not only used for making the decisions but for assessing and judging them. If decision makers have to account for their decisions, will they be able to say they were: This stage has two distinct steps. Any notes should be proportionate to the situation. The National Decision Model was therefore developed as a means to enjoy these benefits. Am I the appropriate person to deal with this? We use our imagination to go beyond the limits of our personal experience to test our ethical decision making and to create a mental data bank to call upon when faced with real world choices. All officers and those that will implement and benefit from the model will receive the full training required to operate and use the model efficiently. Step 1: Collect Information 6 B. They reflect the expectations that the College of Policing and the public have of the behaviour of those working in policing. This paper suggests that the most appropriate Even though the framework was considered effective, the ACPO decided it would be more beneficial to develop a framework that could be used for all purposes. Can you relate the decision making to the Code of Ethics? There are various stages to the process, but all should be taken while considering the mission statement and core values. The model which is often used by crisis managers, or that they use a ‘civilised’ version of, is the police decision-making model in Figure 3. If you think it is appropriate, record what you did and why. to both operational and non-operational situations. The SARA model is a decision-making model that incorporates analysis and research, tailoring solutions to specific problems, and most importantly, evaluating the effectiveness of those responses. The five identified themes of: information, safety, planning, respite, and Making Model The National Decision Model is a police framework that is meant to make the decision making process easier and more uniform. The Code of Ethics includes the principles of ‘fairness’ and ‘respect’ as research has shown these to be crucial to maintaining and enhancing public confidence in policing. Police officers must develop decision-making strategies prior to confronting ethical dilemmas. The concept of an identified police decision-making model was supported by the logistic regression results. Each component provides the user with an area for focus and consideration. It may be reasonable to act outside policy as long as there is a good rationale for doing so. Were there any powers, policies and legislation that should have been considered? Step 2 Review the process and determine whether or not you could have done things better and what you would do in the future if you were faced with a similar, or the same problem. Many forces have their own values statements which are complementary to the Code of Ethics. What further information (or intelligence) do I want/need at this moment? Reaching a joint decision that is not necessarily the same one as the police would have decided on if they were the only agency making the decision is the nature of collaboration and a feature of joint working. 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